Conquest Of Makkah

The truce of Hudaybiyah was broken by the Quraish when they sided with the tribe of Banu Bakr (with whom they had a pact to help one another), they attacked the tribe of Khuza'a who were the allies of the Muslims. The treaty was no longer effective. Abu Sufyan realized this and did his best to revive the treaty, but the Muslims had already realized that the kuffar were not to be trusted, and the treaty was never revived. This was a victory for the Muslims.
On hearing the news that the kuffar had broken the truce Rasulullah prepared to leave for Makkah. Every precaution was taken to keep the kuffar unaware of the coming of the Muslim army. It was the 10th day of Ramadaan in the year 8 Hijri that an army of 10,000 Muslims marched towards Makkah. The Muslims encamped at Mar-ur-Zahraan, a place a few kilometers from Makkah.
When the shepherds of Makkah returned in the evening they reported to the Makkans that a huge army was encamped outside Makkah at Mar-uz-Zahraan. Abu Sufyaan went to investigate who this army was and what were they doing in the valley of Makkah. During his investigation he met Hazrat Abbas (R.A.), the uncle of Rasulullah who convinced Abu Sufyaan to have an audience with Rasulullah . Abu Sufyaan the arch-enemy of Islaam who had instigated so many battles against the Muslims was now in the tent of the Prophet . Rasulullah our Nabi offered him protection from any harm.
The Muslim army triumphantly entered Makkah without any bloodshed and the kuffar surrendered without an attempt to resist. The city of Makkah was now at the mercy of Rasulullah and the Muslims. Everybody was present in the courtyard of the Haram (sanctuary of the Ka'ba). The enemies of Rasulullah and Islaam were helpless. Rasulullah asked them: 'What do you expect at my hands?'. The voices of their hearts rang out: 'Kindness and pity, gracious brother, gracious nephew'. They were not disappointed. Rasulullah used the noble words of Hazrat Yusuf A.S. When he addressed his brothers: 'Have no fear this day, May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy'.
Hinda, the wife of Abu Sufyaan, who had mutilated the body of Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) came in the presence of Rasulullah covered in a veil. The most bitter enemy was touched with general amnesty (general pardon) of Rasulullah and accepted Islaam. Rasulullah purified the sacred House of Allah (Ka'ba) removing all its 360 idols and stones, reciting "Truth has come and Falsehood vanished and no more shall falsehood return" (Sahih al-Bukhari.) The sanctuary of the Ka'ba contained such idols as Hubal, Latt and Manaat. They saw their downfall for they were nothing but pieces of stones. Now every nook and corner of Makkah witnessed and resounded with the call of Tauheed. Rasulullah also proclaimed that : 'Allah has forbidden the sale of intoxicants and usury (Interest) is declared as Haraam'.
It was indeed a unique conquest for Islaam and triumph of Rasulullah 's unshakable faith in his sacred cause. Witness our beloved Nabi now seated on mount Safa delivering his sermon to the multitude of people, contrast this with his flight (Hijrat), stay in the Cave of Thoor and receiving wounds in the battles. Now his faith in 'SURELY ALLAH IS WITH US' is the secret of his success in life and mission.
Rasulullah had left Madinah for Makkah with the Muslim Army on Wednesday 10th Ramadhaan 8 A.H. and entered Makkah on the 20th of Ramadhaan and on that very day Makkah was conquered. He remained in Makkah for about 10-15 days and thereafter returned to Madinah Tayibah.

Battle Of Hunain

Makkah had been the nucleus centre of Religion in Arabia and the Capital of Hedjaz. When the Islaamic flag flew from the top of the Ka'ba, the whole of Arabia recognised this as the symbol of Islaam's truthfulness.
After the conquest of Makkah, people in every part of the land were leaving idol-worshipping and entering the peaceful fold of Islaam. The two tribes situated between Makkah and Taif, Viz, Hawazan and Saqif thought themselves to be superior and refused to embrace Islaam. The chief of the Hawazan tribe Maalik bin Auf, instigated the neighbouring tribes and gathered a huge army to harm Islaam. After receiving the news of this threat, Rasulullah prepared an army of 12,000 men including 2000 Makkans and marched out of Makkah towards the valley of Hunain.
The people of Hawazan were noted for their archery. As the Muslims advanced, they were met with attacks of arrows from all sides and the main army attacked from the front. The Muslim army could not stand the fierce attack of the enemy arrows and fell back. The retreat caused great confusion among the Muslim soldiers. Even the Muhajireen and Ansaar retreated and chaos prevailed. Rasulullah was left with a small band of Sahaba and they fought back with great courage and determination. Hazrat Abbas (R.A.) and the heroes of Islaam descended from their camels and horses and attacked the enemy with great ferocity. When the standard bearer of the enemy fell dead all turned and retreated.
Taif was inhabited by the Saqif tribe and within two years of the Battle of Hunain they voluntarily embraced Islaam.

Treaty Of Hudaybiyah

In the year 6 A.H. Rasulullah saw a vision in which he found himself and the Sahaba entering the holy place of Makkah to perform Hajj. So he set out for Makkah in the month of Zil-Qaadah 6 A.H. with fourteen hundred Sahaba to perform Umrah, without the least intention of going into battle. To avoid any misunderstanding and impress upon the kuffar that it was entirely a peaceful mission, he ordered that none should carry arms except a sheathed sword, a common feature in those days. Camels for sacrifice were taken also. When Rasulullah approached Makkah, he encamped at Hudaybiyah, a mountainous plain, a few kilometres from Makkah in the direction of Jeddah. The kuffar did not allow them to advance despite the peaceful intentions of the Muslims.
Hazrat Uthman bin Affan (R.A.) the son-in-law of Rasulullah was sent as an envoy (negotiator), to explain to the Quraish of Makkah of the intentions of Rasulullah and the Muslims. While Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) was in the Haram a report reached the Muslim camp that Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) has been murdered. The news caused a great stir in the Muslim camp. Rasulullah sat under a tree and called the Sahaba to take a fresh oath to fight to the last man. This pledge is known as 'BAI'AT-UR-RIDHWAAN'.
After some time Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) returned unharmed. The kuffar sent Suhail bin Amr to come to terms with the Muslims. When Rasulullah saw Suhail bin Amr from a distance he said that now matters have become easy. Since the kuffar had sent him i.e. Suhail bin Amr their intention is to make peace. A pact was drawn up, both parties agreeing to maintain peace for ten years on the following conditions-:
(1) The Muslims would return to Madinah without performing Umrah. (2) They would come for Umrah the following year, and would stay in Makkah for only three days. (3) They shall not come bearing arms except the sword. (4) They would not take any Muslim living in Makkah to Madinah, and would not stop any Muslim from staying in Makkah. (5) If any Makkan Muslim went to Madinah the Muslims would return him to Makkah, but if any Muslim from Madinah went to Makkah he would not be returned to Madinah. (6) The Kuffar would neither attack Muslims nor help others against them, but would remain neutral in case of Muslims fighting a third party. (7) All the Arab tribes shall be free to enter into alliance with whichever party they like.

Battle Of Ahzab (TRENCHES)

In the year 5 A.H. the Makkans made another great effort to destroy the Muslims with the help of the Jews and the desert tribes of Ghatafan. This great army of 10,000 men, 4000 camels and 300 horses marched towards Madinah under the command of Abu Sufyaan. The coming danger seemed to cast a great gloom over Madinah. When Rasulullah was informed of the approach of the big army he summoned the Sahaba to devise means to meet the great danger.
On the advise of Hazrat Salmaan Faarsi (R.A.), it was decided that a trench be dug. Since Madinah was surrounded on two sides by lava rock and palm groves on the third side it was decided to dig the trench on the open approaches. Rasulullah with the assistance of the Muhajireen and the Ansaar got down to the difficult task of digging the trench. They made the trench 5 meters deep and 5 meters wide.
All the time the Sahaba were marvellously inspired by Rasulullah himself who worked as a labourer amongst them. The enemy approached Madinah and faced a setback when they saw the deep trench around the town. They settled down to a siege. The siege went on for 27 days. They failed to penetrate the defiance of the Muslims.
There was no hand combat since the trench was five meters wide. However, arrows were being showered from both sides. Amr bin Abd, a kuffar fighter, made his horse jump over a narrow portion of the trench. As soon as he reached the other side, Zulfiqar, the sword of Hazrat Ali (R.A.) flashed out and fell upon the enemy and killed him. Hazrat Ali (R.A.) triumphantly raised the war cry Allah hu Akbar- Allah is the Greatest.
On the twenty seventh night of the siege a severe storm approached Madinah. The effect of this severe storm was most devastating for the Kuffar. Their tents were uprooted, goods were blown about, fires were extinguished and the whole kuffar army was in utter fear and in a state of confusion. Under the circumstances the kuffar army fled in disarray.

Relations with Jews

When Rasulullah came to Madinah, he signed a treaty (agreement) with the Jews to live in peace and harmony and help each other against anyone who wanted to attack Madinah. The Jews contravened (broke) the treaty and conspired (made plans) with the Quraish of Makkah, the Munafiqs and other enemies of Islaam to bring to an end the mission of Rasulullah .
Rasulullah ordered the Banu Qainuqah out of Madinah and they went and settled in Syria. Then the Banu Nadhir were ordered to leave Madinah. They refused to make a new agreement and they attempted to assassinate Rasulullah . Some of the Banu Nadir clan settled in Khaibar while others went and settled in Syria. All this happened in the 4th year of Hijrat. In the year 5 Hijrat the Banu Quraizah joined the kuffar against the Muslims in the Battle of Ahzab. After a siege (blockade) of one month they (the Banu Quraizah) gave up and requested that Hazrat Sa'ad bin Mu'az (R.A.) be asked to decide what should be done with them. In passing judgment Hazrat Sa'ad bin Mu'az (R.A.) ordered that the able bodies and active fighters be put to death, the women and children to be treated as prisoners of war and their goods and property to be handed over as spoils of war to be distributed among the poor Muslim workers. This decision was compatible with the commands of the Taura (The Book of the Jews),

Battle Of Uhad

The fire of vengeance was blindly burning in the hearts of the Makkans for they had met with a crushing defeat at Badr. In the third year of Hijrah they marched with 3,000 well armed solders towards Madinah. The kuffar of Makkah having lost their greatest leaders at Badr chose Abu Sufyaan as their commander, who swore that he would not rest until he had full vengeance on the Muslims.
Rasulullah made mushwarah (consultation) with the Muslims regarding the expected attack. It was finally decided to repel the attack outside the city of Madinah. Rasulullah offered Jum'a Salaat at Masjid-e-Nabwi and left for Uhud, a mountainous region 5 km north of Madinah with a thousand men on 14 Shawwal 3 A.H. Abdullah bin Ubay the leader of the Munafiqs deserted the Muslims with 300 of his men, reducing the strength of the Muslim army to 700 men, poorly equipped in arms but filled with enthusiasm to defend the truth at all cost.
Rasulullah and the Muslims camped with the mountain behind them. On the one side there was a mountainous pass and there was danger of an attack from behind, so Rasulullah posted 50 archers on Mount Rumat under the command of Hazrat Abdullah bin Jubair (R.A.) with strict orders not to leave the post at any account, irrespective of victory or defeat.
On Saturday 15 Shawwal 3 A.H. the opposing armies prepared for battle. According to Arab costom, the battle began with a round of hand to hand fighting before general attack.
Hazrat Ali (R.A.) and Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) an uncle of Rasulullah killed many of the kuffar. Twelve flag bearers of the kuffar were killed, eight of whom were killed by Hazrat Ali (R.A.). The kuffar were in desperate situation seeing their brave soldiers slain, they fled from the battlefield pursued by the Muslims. When the archers saw the fallen flags of the enemy and their companions collecting the booty (spoils of war) they sensed victory, and in their enthusiasm and desire to participate in the pursuance of the enemy, the archers overlooked the command of Nabi and left their positions.
Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) was martyred in this battle by Wahshi a negro slave. Jubair bin Mut'am the slave owner had offered Wahshi his freedom while Hinda binte Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyaan, the commander of the Makkan army, offered her jewellery on her person if he, Wahshi succeeded in killing Hazrat Hamza (R.A.)
Khalid bin Walid, a Makkan army general, did not fail to observe the weak position of the pass and saw his chance. Through the pass, at the head of his cavalry (soldiers on horseback) he fiercely attacked and the Muslims suffered heavy losses. Hazrat Mus'ab bin Umair (R.A.), a sahabi who resembled our beloved Nabi was martyred in this attack. The Kuffar soldiers raised a cry that the prophet was slain. This alarming news spread like wild fire and caused great grief amongst the Muslims. This false cry of the kuffar rallied the devoted Sahaba round Rasulullah . Hazrat Aus bin Nazar (R.A.) said: 'Oh what worth is life then if the Prophet is no longer in our midst. Let us fight on for the cause which he fought for'. These words inspired the Muslims to fight for the cause of Islaam.
Hazrat Ka'ab bin Malik (R.A.) saw Rasulullah and loudly proclaimed; 'Muslims be happy, Rasulullah is alive and well'. Thereafter Rasulullah said, 'Come to me, I am the Rasool of Allah'.
Hazrat Ali (R.A.), Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), Hazrat Sa'ad bin Waqaas (R.A.), Hazrat Zubair (R.A.), Hazrat Talha (R.A.) among the Muhajireen and Hazrat Abu Dujana from the Ansaar were standing around our Nabi and formed a secured wall around him. The sword of Hazat Ali (R.A.) named 'Zulfiqar' fell like lightning and many of the attackers were forced to fall back. The enemies best effort to get to our Nabi were now frustrated.
One of the enemy, Ibn Qami'ah moved forward and gave a blow with his sword over the head of Rasulullah which caused two rings of his helmet (head gear) to pierce the face of Rasulullah . Another enemy struck him on the face with a stone with the result that two of his teeth fell were martyred.
The kuffar had to retreat because they were frustrated in their attempts against the Muslims. Before leaving the battlefield their passion and hatred and vengeance took the most barbarous shape, namely they gave vent to their vengeance on the dead bodies of the Muslims. The bodies were mercilessly mutilated. Hinda the wife of Abu Sufyaan hated the beloved uncle of Nabi Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) and seeing his dead body, ripped it open, took out the liver, chewed it, and garlanded herself with the intestines. She climbed up a hill and sang a song indicating that the defeat at Badr was avenged that day, Sixty five Ansaar and four Muhajireen laid down their lives and achieved matchless martyrdom. Rasulullah never lost his fortitude and patience.
Yet again, the Kuffar left the battlefield having failed to exterminate Islaam.

Battle Of Badar

As soon as Abu Sufyaan got his caravan safely away from the Muslims, he sent another message to Makkah that they were safe and no longer required assistance. Abu Jahl was looking for an excuse to attack the Muslims. He had been making preparations for almost a year, thus he was not prepared to turn back after receiving the message from Abu Sufyaan. He marched towards Madinah with an army of 1000 men, 700 camels and 300 horses. Abu Jahl's men were well trained and well armed with spears, swords, bows and arrows, and shields.

On hearing the news that the Kuffaar of Makkah had left with 1000 men to destroy the Muslims, Rasulullah made mushwarah (consultation) with the sahaba at Masji-e-Nabwi in Madinah. At the Mashwarah, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A.), Hazrat Umar (R.A.) from Muhajireen and Hazrat Saad bin Mu'az from the Ansaar and the rest of the Muslims showed their willingness and desire to defend Islaam against falsehood.

When Rasulullah was satisfied with the decision, he began preparations for the defence of Islaam. Rasulullah left Madinah with 313 men including some teenage boys. They only had 3 horses, 70 camels and a few swords. When they reached BADR, which was a mountainous region, Rasulullah made dua to Allah and pleaded : 'O Allah! should this small group of believers perish this day, no one will be left on earth to worship you and carry your message to the world'.

The battle took place on the 17th of Ramadhaan 2 A.H. Allah sent His mercy and the Kuffar lost the battle at the hands of the Muslims. Seventy of the Kufaar including the arch enemy of Islaam, Abu Jahl were killed and as many as seventy were taken as prisoners-of-war. Fourteen Muslims were martyred in the battle.

It was a battle between good and evil, falsehood was defeated and Truth triumphed. The success of the Battle of Badr considerably strengthened the Muslims and their cause.

Words of Wisdom

Words of Wisdom from Prophet Mohammad (PBUH)

1.. "Acquire knowledge, it enables its professor to distinguish right from wrong; it lights the way to heaven. It is our friend in the desert, our company in solitude and companion when friendless. It guides us to happiness, it sustains us in misery, it is an ornament amongst friends and an armour against enemies." (widely attributed to the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh))

2.. "A Muslim who plants a tree or sows a field, from which man, birds and animals can eat, is committing an act of charity." (Muslim)

3.. "There is a polish for everything that takes away rust; and the polish for the heart is the remembrance of Allah." (Bukhari)

4.. "What actions are most excellent? To gladden the heart of human beings, to feed the hungry, to help the afflicted, to lighten the sorrow of the sorrowful, and to remove the sufferings of the injured." (Bukhari)

5.. "The most excellent Jihad is that for the conquest of self." (Bukhari)

6.. "If you put your whole trust in Allah, as you ought, He most certainly will satisfy your needs, as He satisfies those of the birds. They come out hungry in the morning, but return full to their nests." (Tirmidhi)

7.. "When Allah created his creatures He wrote above His throne: 'Verily, my Compassion overcomes my wrath." (Bukhari & Muslim)

8.. "Allah will not give mercy to anyone, except those who give mercy to other creatures." (Abdullah b. Amr: Abu Daud & Tirmidhi)

9.. " 'Son, if you are able, keep your heart from morning till night and from night till morning free from malice towards anyone.' Then the Prophet said: 'O my son! This is one of my laws, and he, who loves my laws verily loves me.' " (Bukhari)

10.. "Say what is true, although it may be bitter and displeasing to people." (Baihaqi)

11.. "Kindness is a mark of faith, and whoever is not kind has no faith." (Muslim)

12.. "When you see a person who has been given more than you in money and beauty, look to those, who have been given less." (Muslim)

13.. "If you do not feel ashamed of anything, then you can do whatever you like." (Abu-Masud: Bukhari)

14.. "O Lord, grant me your love, grant me that I love those who love you; grant me, that I might do the deeds that win your love. Make your love dearer to me than the love of myself, my family and wealth." (Tirmidhi)

15.. "It is better to sit alone than in company with the bad; and it is better still to sit with the good than alone. It is better to speak to a seeker of knowledge than to remain silent; but silence is better than idle words." (Bukhari)

16.. "Verily, a man teaching his child manners is better than giving one bushel of grain in alms." (Muslim)

17.. "Whoever is kind, Allah will be kind to him; therefore be kind to man on the earth. He Who is in heaven will show mercy on you."(Abu Daud: Tirmidhi)

18.. "It is difficult for a man laden with riches to climb the steep path, that leads to bliss." (Muslim)

19.. "Once a man, who was passing through a road, found a branch of a tree with torns obstructing it. The man removed the thorns from the way. Allah thanked him and forgave his sins." (Bukhari)

20.. "Who are the learned? Those who practice what they know." (Bukhari)

21.. "Allah has revealed to me, that you must be humble. No one should boast over one another, and no one should oppress another." (Iyad b. Hinar al-Mujashi: Muslim)

22.. "Who is the most favoured of Allah? He, from whom the greatest good comes to His creatures." (Bukhari)

23.. "A true Muslim is thankful to Allah in prosperity, and resigned to His will in adversity." (Muslim)

24.. "A Muslim who meets with others and shares their burdens is better than one who lives a life of seclusion and contemplation." (Muslim)

25.. "Serve Allah, as you would if you could see Him; although you cannot see Him, He can see you. (Umar: Muslim)

26.. "Allah does not look at your appearance or your possessions; but He looks at your heart and your deeds." (Abu Huraira: Muslim)

27.. "The best richness is the richness of the soul." (at the field ofTabuk, Syria, Rajab 9 A.H.: Bukhari)

28.. "Keep yourselves far from envy; because it eats up and takes away good actions, like a fire eats up and burns wood." (Abu Daud)

29.. "Much silence and a good disposition, there are no two things better than these." (Bukhari)

30.. "Verily, Allah is mild and is fond of mildness, and He gives to the mild what He does not give to the harsh." (Muslim)

31.. "Whoever loves to meet Allah, Allah loves to meet him." (Bukhari)

32.. "Once the Prophet was asked:'Tell us, which action is dearest to Allah?' He answered:'To say your prayer at its proper time.' Again he was asked: 'What comes next?' Mohammed said: 'To show kindness to parents.' 'Then what?' he was asked, 'To strive for the cause of Allah!' " (Ibn Masad: Bukhari)

33.. "When two persons are together, two of them must no whisper to each other, without letting the third hear; because it would hurt him." (Bukhari & Muslim)

34.. "Verily, it is one of the respects to Allah to honor an old man." (Bukhari)

35.. "All Muslims are like a foundation, each strengthening the other; in such a way they do support each other." (Abu Musa: Bukhari & Muslim)

36.. "Strive always to excel in virtue and truth." (Bukhari)

37.. "You will not enter paradise until you have faith; and you will not complete your faith till you love one another." (Muslim)

38.. "He, who wishes to enter paradise at the best gate, must please his father and mother." (Bukhari & Muslim)

39.. "I am leaving two things among you, and if you cling to them firmly you will never go astray; one is the Book of Allah and the other is my way of life." (Farewell Pilgrimage: Muatta)

40.. "Allah is One and likes Unity." (Muslim)

41.. "The best of alms is that, which the right hand gives and the left hand knows not of." (Bukhari)

42.. "The perfect Muslim is not a perfect Muslim, who eats till he is full and leaves his neighbors hungry." (Ibn Abbas: Baihaqi)

43.. "He is not of us who is not affectionate to the little ones, and does not respect the old; and he is not of us, who does not order which is lawful, and prohibits that which is unlawful." (Ibn Abbas: Tirmidhi)

44.. "No man is a true believer unless he desires for his brother that, what he desires for himself." (Abu Hamza Anas: Bukhari & Muslim)

45.. "To strive for the cause of Allah from daybreak to noon and sunset is better than the goods and enjoyment of the whole worldly life." (Bukhari)

46.. "Be not like the hypocrite who, when he talks, tells lies; when he gives a promise, he breaks it; and when he is trusted, he proves dishonest." (Bukhari & Muslim)

47.. "The proof of a Muslim's sincerity is, that he pays no heed to that, which is not his business." (Abu Hureira: Tirmidhi)

48.. "Do you know what is better than charity and fasting and prayer? It is keeping peace and good relations between people, as quarrels and bad feelings destroy mankind." (Muslims & Bukhari)

49.. "Conduct yourself in this world, as if you are here to stay forever; prepare for eternity as if you have to die tomorrow." (Bukhari)

50.. "The worldly comforts are not for me. I am like a traveller, who takes a rest under a tree in the shade and then goes on his way." (Tirmidhi)

Birth and Youth

Muhammad (PBUH) (Blessings and Peace be upon him) was born in Makkah, Arabia, on Monday, 12 Rabi' Al-Awwal (2 August C.E). His mother, Aminah was the daughter of Wahb bin Abd Al-Manaf of the Zahrah family. His father, Abdullah, was the son of Abd Al-Muttalib. His genealogy has been traced to the noble house of Isma'il, the son of Ibrahim (Abraham) (PBUH) (May Peace be upon him) in about the fortieth descent. Muhammad's father had died before his birth and his mother died when he was about six years old making him an orphan. In accordance with the tradition of noble families of Makkah, he was taken by a foster mother, Halimah, to her village where he lived for a few years. During these years he was taken to Makkah several times to visit his mother. After the death of his mother, he was placed under the custody of his grandfather, Abd Al-Muttalib. When the grandfather died, he was under the care of his uncle, Abu Talib. By this time he used to look after sheep around Makkah and used to accompany his uncle on trade journeys to Syria.

In his youth he believed firmly in the Oneness of Allah (God)(SWT). He lived a very simple life and hated vanity and pride. He was compassionate to the poor, widows and orphans and shared their sufferings by helping them. He avoided all vices, which were commonly practiced among young people such as gambling, drinking wine, vulgarity and others. He was well-known as As-Sadiq (the truthful) and Al-Amin (the trustworthy). He was always trusted as a mediator between two conflicting parties in his homeland, Makkah.


When he was about 25 years old, his uncle urged him to work with the caravan which belonged to a wealthy widow named Khadijah. He accepted and undertook the journey to Syria. He conducted business with such prudence and sense of duty that he returned with larger profit than usual. Khadijah was so impressed by the honest and attractive personality of Muhammad (PBUH) that she offered to marry him which Muhammad (PBUH) accepted. This marriage was a happy one. They had children. Khadijah was so far his only wife until she died at the age of 51


Muhammad (PBUH) was born amidst a polytheistic (unbeliever) society. He was saddened and sick of the corrupt society around him. He often went to Hira cave in the mountain near Makkah, later known as Jabal An-nur (the mountain of Light) where he meditated and pondered over the prevailing darkness brought about by ignorance. There he often remained deep in thought in communion with the unseen yet All-Pervading God of the Universe. One night, while he was meditating in the Hira cave, the Angel Gabriel (peace be upon him) came to him. The Angel aroused him and his mighty voice reverberated in his ears. He was perplexed and did not know what to do. He was asked to read. He replied: "I cannot read!" The Angel repeated three times asking Muhammad (PBUH) to read, but he replied the same answer. Finally the Angel asked:
[Read in the name of your Lord , who created man from a clot. Read in the name of your God, the Most Bountiful, who taught by means of the pen, and taught man what he did not know.] (Qur'an 96: 1-5)
This was the first revelation received by Muhammad (PBUH). He was 40 years old at that time. The revelation continued to come to him from time to time in a period of 23 years. These series of revelation were arranged according to the divine guidance given to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and later collected in the form of a Mushaf (book) the Qur'an (Reading). Most of its verses have clear meaning. Some verses are interpreted in conjunction with other verses and some others were interpreted by the Prophet (PBUH) himself through his words, actions and agreements which are known as his Sunnah (Traditions). The Qur'an and the Sunnah together constitute the guidance and way of life for those who submit their life to Allah (God) (SWT). People who follow this guidance and way of life are guaranteed by Allah (SWT) to be saved in this world and the Hereafter.


When the Prophet (PBUH) called the people to the way of Allah, not many people listened to his call. Most of them were members of his family and from the low class society. Among them were Khadijah, Ali, Zayd and Bilal. When he intensified his mission (da'wah: Call to Islam) by publicly announcing the religion he preached, he won more followers but at the same time had to face many challenges from the nobles and leaders who found their position being threatened and jeopardized. They stood together, under the pretext of defending the religion of their ancestors, to fight the new religion. The morale of the few people who embraced Islam was heightened when a small group of the respected people of Makkah joined the religion. Notable among them were `Uthman bin `Affan, Zubair bin Al-`Awwam, `Abd Ar-Rehman bin `Awf, Talhah bin `Ubaydullah, Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, Arqam bin Abi Arqam, `Ubaydullah bin Harith, Sa'id bin Zayd, `Amr bin Nufail, Fatimah (the wife of Nufail), Asma binti Abu Bakr, `Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Ja'far bin Abi Thalib (May Allah be pleased with them) and many others. Before this group, Abu Bakr was the first among the earlier followers that impressed the Prophet (PBUH) very much. The Prophet (PBUH) said about him: "I never invited anyone to the faith who did not display any hesitation in embracing it except Abu Bakr. When I had offered Islam, he showed no hesitation at all in accepting it." As the result of these challenges from the Makkan unbelievers, some Muslims were subjected to torture, persecutions, isolations and boycotts. The Prophet (PBUH) had to be patient and had to look for the protection of Muslims. He asked Negus, King of Ethiopia to allow Muslims to migrate to his country. Negus welcomed the Muslims emigrants in his territory and refused to hand them over to the Makkan unbeliever rulers.

Migration (Hijrah)

By the end of the Makkan period, the Prophet (PBUH) lost two people who were dear to him. They were his most affectionate uncle, Abu Talib, and his faithful and loving wife, Khadijah. After their deaths, the Makkans felt free to do what they wanted to impose to the Prophet and his followers. In many Makkah was the Ka'bah (the Holy Mosque), which was built by Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) centuries before as a holy place to worship Allah (SWT), the One. But in the course of time, the place had been converted by unbelievers to the worship of objects other than Allah (SWT). People added to it many tradition of their own. They used to visit this place for a few months in a year for pilgrimage. They came from all parts of Arabia, representing various famous tribes. The pilgrimage, inspite of its religious bearing, constituted for the Arabs a yearly festival where people met and indulge in their cultural activities. The Prophet (PBUH) took this opportunity to spread Islam. Among those who were interested in his call, were a group of people from Yathrib (Madina) in the North of Arabia. They met secretly with the Prophet (PBUH) and a few Muslims from Makkah in a village called `Aqabah. After becoming Muslims, they took an oath of allegiance to protect Islam, the Prophet and the Makkan Muslims. The following year, the group of Muslims from Yathrib came again to Makkah. They met the Prophet (PBUH) at the same place where they previously met. This time, `Abbas bin Abd Al-Muttalib, the Prophet's uncle who was himself not a Muslim yet, was present at the meeting. They invited the Prophet (PBUH) and the Muslims from Makkah to emigrate to Yathrib. They promised to treat them as true brothers and sisters. A long dialogue was held between the Muslims of Yathrib with the Prophet's uncle to make sure that they really wanted to welcome the Makkan Muslims in their town. The Prophet (PBUH) agreed at the end to emigrate to the new land. Upon knowing that, the Muslims had planned to leave Makkah, the Makkan unbelievers tried to stop the immigration but the first group had already migrated to Yathrib. The Makkans had fear that the movement to Yathrib would give the Muslims a new base to spread Islam. Within two months nearly all Muslims of Makkah, except the Prophet, Abu Bakr, Ali and a few helpless people had migrated. The Makkans then decided to kill the Prophet (PBUH). They made a plan for this purpose, but Allah (SWT) had made another plan over them, to quote the Qur'an. With various tactics and a good planning, the Prophet finally arrived peacefully in Yathrib, which was later known as Madinat Ar-Rasul (The city of the Prophet).

What bible says about Muhammad

This book "What the BIBLE says about MUHAMMAD (Peace be upon him)" writen by great Islamic scholer Shaikh Ahmad Deedat. You can find on Internet, Its available free.

Muhammad the Greatest

This book "Muhammad the Greatest" writen by great Islamic scholer Shaikh Ahmad Deedat. You can find on Internet, Its available free.

Sahih Bukhari - Tawheed

Volume 9, Book 93, Number 469:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

When the Prophet sent Muadh to Yemen, he said to him, "You are going to a nation from the people of the Scripture, so let the first thing to which you will invite them, be the Tauhid of Allah. If they learn that, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them, five prayers to be offered in one day and one night. And if they pray, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Zakat of their properties and it is to be taken from the rich among them and given to the poor. And if they agree to that, then take from them Zakat but avoid the best property of the people."

Volume 9, Book 93, Number 470:
Narrated Mu'adh bin Jabal:

The Prophet said, "O Mu'adh! Do you know what Allah's Right upon His slaves is?" I said, "Allah and His Apostle know best." The Prophet said, "To worship Him (Allah) Alone and to join none in worship with Him (Allah). Do you know what their right upon Him is?" I replied, "Allah and His Apostle know best." The Prophet said, "Not to punish them (if they do so)."

Volume 9, Book 93, Number 473:
Narrated Jarir bin 'Abdullah:

Allah's Apostle said, "Allah will not be merciful to those who are not merciful to mankind."

Volume 9, Book 93, Number 474:
Narrated Usama bin Zaid:

We were with the Prophet when suddenly there came to him a messenger from one of his daughters who was asking him to come and see her son who was dying. The Prophet said (to the messenger), "Go back and tell her that whatever Allah takes is His, and whatever He gives is His, and everything with Him has a limited fixed term (in this world). So order her to be patient and hope for Allah's reward." But she sent the messenger to the Prophet again, swearing that he should come to her. So the Prophets got up, and so did Sa'd bin 'Ubada and Mu'adh bin Jabal (and went to her). When the child was brought to the Prophet his breath was disturbed in his chest as if it were in a water skin. On that the eyes of the Prophet . became flooded with tears, whereupon Sa'd said to him, "O Allah's Apostle! What is this?" The Prophet said, "This is mercy which Allah has put in the heart of His slaves, and Allah bestows His mercy only on those of His slaves who are merciful (to others)." (See Hadith No. 373, Vol. 2)

Volume 9, Book 93, Number 475:
Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ashari:

The Prophet said, "None is more patient than Allah against the harmful and annoying words He hears (from the people): They ascribe children to Him, yet He bestows upon them health and provision .

Envoy to Caesar, King of Rome

Al-Bukhari gave a long narration of the contents of the letter sent by the Prophet (Peace be upon him) to Hercules, king of the Byzantines:
“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad, the slave of Allâh and His Messenger to Hercules, king of the Byzantines. Blessed are those who follow true guidance. I invite you to embrace Islam so that you may live in security. If you come within the fold of Islam, Allâh will give you double reward, but in case you turn your back upon it, then the burden of the sins of all your people shall fall on your shoulders.
“Say [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)]: ‘O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allâh, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allâh.’ Then, if they turn away, say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims.’ ” [3:64]
The Muslim envoy, Dihyah bin Khalifah Al-Kalbi, was ordered to hand the letter over to king of Busra, who would in turn, send it to Caesar.
Incidentally, Abu Sufyan bin Harb, who by that time had not embraced Islam, was summoned to the court and Hercules asked him many questions about Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and the religion which he preached. The testimony which this avowed enemy of the Prophet gave regarding the personal excellence of the Prophet’s character and the good that Islam was doing the human race, left Hercules wonder-struck.
Al-Bukhâri, on the authority of Ibn Abbas, narrated that Hercules sent for Abu Sufyan and his companions, who happened to be trading in Ash-Sham, Jerusalem. That was during the truce that had been concluded between the polytheists of Quraish and the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him). Hercules, seated amongst his chiefs of staff, asked, “Who amongst you is the nearest relative to the man who claims to be a Prophet?” “I (Abu Sufyan) replied: ‘I am the nearest relative to him from amongst the group.’ So they made me sit in front of him and made my companions sit behind
me. Then he called upon his translator and said (to him). ‘Tell them (i.e. Abu Sufyan’s companions) that I am going to ask him (i.e. Abu Sufyan) regarding that man who claims to be a Prophet. So if he tells a lie, they should contradict him (instantly)’. By Allâh had I not been afraid that my companions would consider me a liar, I would have told lies”, Abu Sufyan later said.
Abu Sufyan’s testimony went as follows: “Muhammad descends from a noble family. No one of his family happened to assume kingship. His followers are those deemed weak with numbers ever growing. He neither tells lies nor betrays others, we fight him and he fights us but with alternate victory. He bids people to worship Allâh Alone with no associate, and abandon our fathers’ beliefs.
He orders us to observe prayer, honesty, abstinence and maintain strong family ties.” “Hercules, on hearing this testimony, turned to his translator bidding him to communicate to us his following impression which reveals full conviction in the truthfulness of Muhammad’s Prophethood: ‘I fully realize that Prophets come from noble families; he does not affect any previous example of Prophethood. Since none of his ancestors was a monarch, we cannot then allege that he is a man trying to reclaim his father’s monarchy. So long as he does not tell lies to people, he is for the more reason, immune to telling lies as regards Allâh. Concerning his followers being those deemed weak with numbers ever growing, it is something that goes in agreement with questions of Faith until this latter assumes its full dimensions geographically and demographically. I have understood that no instance of apostasy has as yet appeared among his followers, and this points to the bliss of Faith
that finds its abode in the human heart. Betrayal, as I see, is alien to him because real Prophets hold betrayal in . Bidding worship of Allâh with no associates, observance of prayer, honesty and abstinence and prohibition of paganism are traits bound to subject to him all my possessions. I have already known that a Prophet must arise but it has never occurred to me that he will be an Arab from among you. If I was sure I would be faithful to him, I might hope to meet him, and if I were
with him, I would wash his feet.’ Hercules then requested that the Prophet’s letter be read. The observations of the emperor and finally the definite and clear-cut exposition of the Islamic message could not but create a tense atmosphere amongst the clergy present at the court. We were ordered to go out.” Abu Sufyan said, “While coming out, I said to my companions, ‘The matter of Ibn Abi Kabshah [i.e. Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] has become so prominent that even the king of Banu Al-Asfar (i.e. the Romans) is afraid of him.’ So I continued to believe that Allâh’s Messenger
(Peace be upon him) would be victorious, till Allâh made me embrace Islam.” The king did not embrace Islam — for it was differently ordained. However, the Muslim envoy was returned to Madinah with the felicitations of the emperor.

Muhammad Letter to Chosroes, Emperor of Persia

“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allâh to Chosroes, king of Persia.
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance, believes in Allâh and His Messenger and testifies that there is no god but Allâh Alone with no associate, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. I invite you to accept the religion of Allâh. I am the Messenger of Allâh sent to all people in order that I may infuse fear of Allâh in every living person, and that the charge may be proved against those who reject the Truth. Accept Islam as your religion so that you may live in security, otherwise, you will be responsible for all the sins of the Magians.”
‘Abdullah bin Hudhafa As-Sahmi was chosen to carry the letter. Abdullah got his camel ready and bade farewell to his wife and son. He set out, alone, and traversed mountains and valleys until he reached the land of the Persians.
He sought permission to enter into the king's presence informing the guards of the letter he was carrying. Khusraw Parvez thereupon ordered his audience chamber to be made ready and summoned his prominent aides. When they had assembled he gave permission for Abdullah to enter.
Abdullah entered and saw the Persian potentate dressed in delicate, flowing robes and wearing a great, neatly arranged turban. On Abdullah was the plain, coarse clothes of the bedouin. His head though was held high and his feet were firm. The honor of Islam burned fiercely in his breast and the power of faith pulsated in his heart.
As soon as Khusraw Parvez saw him approaching he signalled to one of his men to take the letter from his hand.
"No," said Abdullah. 'The Prophet commanded me to hand over this letter to you directly and I shall not go against a command of the Messenger of God."
"Let him come near to me," Khusraw said to his guards and Abdullah went forward and handed over the letter. Khusraw then called an Arab clerk who originally came from Hira and ordered him to open the letter in his presence and read its contents. He began reading:
"In the name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of God, to Khusraw the ruler of Persia. Peace on whoever follows the guidance . . ."
Khusraw only heard this much of the letter when the fire of anger burst within him. His face became red and he began to perspire around the neck. He snatched the letter from the clerk's hand and began tearing it to pieces without knowing what else it contained and shouted, "Does he dare to write to me like this, he who is my slave". He was angry that the Prophet had not given him precedence in his letter. He then commanded Abdullah to be expelled from his assembly.
Abdullah was taken away, not knowing what would happen to him. Would he be killed or would he be set free? But he did not want to wait to find out. He said, "By God, I don't care what happens to me after the letter of the Prophet has been so badly treated." He managed to get to his camel and rode off.
When Khusraw's anger had subsided he commanded that Abdullah be brought before him. But Abdullah was nowhere to be found. They searched for him all the way to the Arabian peninsula but found that he had gone ahead.
Back in Madinah, Abdullah told the Prophet how Khusraw had torn his letter to pieces and the Prophet's only reply was, "May God tear up his kingdom".
Meanwhile, Khusraw wrote to Badhan, his deputy in the Yemen, to send two strong men to "that man who has appeared in the Hijaz" with orders to bring him to Persia.
Badhan dispatched two of his strongest men to the Prophet and gave them a letter to him in which he was ordered to go with the two men to meet Khusraw without delay. Badhan also asked the two men to get whatever information they could on the Prophet and to study his message closely.
The men set out, moving very quickly. At Taif they met some Quraysh traders and asked them about Muhammad. "He is in Yathrib," they said and they went on to Makkah feeling extremely happy. This was good news for them and they went around telling other Quraysh, "You will be pleased. Khusraw is out to get Muhammad and you will be rid of his evil."
The two men meanwhile made straight for Madinah where they met the Prophet, handed him the letter of Badhan and said to him, "The king of kings, Khusraw, has written to our ruler Badhan to send his men to get you. We have come to take you with us. If you come willingly, Khusraw has said that it will be good for you and he will spare you any punishment. If you refuse, you will know the power of his punishment. He has power to destroy you and your people."
The Prophet smiled and said to them, "Go back to your mounts today and return tomorrow."
On the following day, they came to the Prophet and said to him, "Are you prepared to go with us to meet Khusraw?"
"You shall not meet Khusraw after today," replied the Prophet. "God has killed him and his son Shirwaih has taken his place on such a night and on such a month."
The two men stared in the face of the Prophet. They were completely dumbfounded.
"Do you know what you are saying?" they asked. "Shall we write about this to Badhan?"
"Yes," replied the Prophet, "and say to him that my religion has informed me about what has happened to the Kingdom of Khusraw and that if he should become Muslim, I would appoint him ruler over what he now controls".
The two men returned to the Yemen and told Badhan what had happened. Badhan said, "If what Muhammad has said is true, then he is a Prophet. If not then we shall see what happens to him."
Not long afterwards a letter from Shirwaih came to Badhan in which he said, "I killed Khusraw because of his tyranny against our people. He regarded as lawful the killing of leaders, the capturing of their women and the expropriating of their wealth. When this my letter reaches you, take the allegiance of whoever is with you on my behalf."
As soon as Badhan had read Shirwaih's letter, he threw it aside and announced his entry into Islam. The Persians with him in the Yemen also became Muslim.
That's the story of Abdullah ibn Hudhafah's meeting with the Persian king. His meeting with the Byzantine emperor took place during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab. It too is an astonishing story.
In the nineteenth year after the Hijrah, Umar dispatched an army to fight against the Byzantine. In it was Abdullah ibn Hudhafah. News of the Muslim force reached the Byzantine emperor. He had heard of their sincerity of faith, and their willingness to sacrifice their lives in the way of God and His Prophet. He gave orders to his men to bring to him any Muslim captive they might take alive.
God willed that Abdullah ibn Hudhafah should fall captive to the Byzantines and he was brought before the Emperor. The Emperor looked at Abdullah for a long time. Suddenly he said, "I shall make a proposal to you."
"What is it?" asked Abdullah. "I suggest that you become a Christian. If you do this, you will be set free and I shall grant you a safe refuge." The prisoner's reaction was furious: "Death is preferable to me a thousand times to what you ask me to do."
"I see that you are a bold man. However, if you respond positively to what I propose to you, I will give you a share in my authority and swear you in as my aide."
The prisoner, shackled in his chains, smiled and said, "By God, if you give me all that you possess and all that the Arabs have in exchange for giving up the religion of Muhammad, I shall not do so."
"Then I shall kill you."
"Do what you want," answered Abdullah.
The emperor then had him put on a cross and ordered his soldiers to throw spears at him, first near his hands and then near his feet, all the while telling him to accept Christianity or at least give up his religion. This he refused over and over again to do.
The emperor then had him taken down from the wooden cross. He called for a great pot to be brought. This was filled with oil which was then heated under a fierce fire. He then had two other Muslim prisoners brought and had one of them thrown into the boiling oil. The prisoner's flesh sizzled and soon his bones could be seen. The emperor turned to Abdullah and invited him to Christianity.
This was the most terrible test that Abdullah had to face up till now. But he remained firm and the emperor gave up trying. He then ordered that Abdullah too be thrown into the pot. As he was being taken away he began to shed tears. The emperor thought that he had at last been broken and had him brought back to him. He once more suggested that Abdullah become a Christian but to his astonishment, Abdullah refused.
"Damn you! Why did you weep then?" shouted the emperor.
"I cried," said Abdullah, "because I said to myself 'You will now be thrown into this pot and your soul will depart'. What I really desired then was to have as many souls as the number of hairs on my body and to have all of them thrown into this pot for the sake of God."
The tyrant then said, "Will you kiss my head? I will then set you free?"
"And all the Muslim prisoners also?" asked Abdullah.
This the emperor agreed to do and Abdullah said to himself, "One of the enemies of God! I shall kiss his head and he shall set me and all other Muslim prisoners free. There can be no blame on me for doing this." He then went up to the emperor and kissed his forehead. All the Muslim prisoners were released and handed over to Abdullah.
Abdullah ibn Hudhafah eventually came to Umar ibn al-Khattab and told him what had happened. Umar was greatly pleased and when he looked at the prisoners he said, "Every Muslim has a duty to kiss the head of Abdullah ibn Khudhafah and I shall start." Umar then got up and kissed the head of Abdullah ibn Hudhafah .

A Deputation to Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

Negus, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), his name was Ashama bin Al-Abjar, received the Prophet’s message, despatched by Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari, which At-Tabari referred to, either late in the sixth year or early in the seventh year A.H. Deep scrutiny into the letter shows that it w as not the one sent after Al-Hudaibiyah event. Wording of the letter rather indicates that it was sent to that king when Ja‘far and his companions emigrated to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) during the Makkan period. One of its sentences read “I have despatched my cousin, Ja‘far with a group of Muslims, to you. Do be generous towards them and give up haughtiness.”
Al-Baihaqi, on the authority of Ibn Ishaq, gave the following narration of the Prophet’s letter sent to Negus:
“This letter is sent from Muhammad, the Prophet to Negus Al-Ashama, the king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Peace be upon him who follows true guidance and believes in Allâh and His Messenger. I bear witness that there is no god but Allâh Alone with no associate, He has taken neither a wife nor a son, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. I call you unto the fold of Islam; if you embrace Islam, you will find safety,
“Say [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)]: ‘O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allâh, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allâh.’ Then, if they turn away, say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims.’ ” [The Holy Quran, 3:64]
Should you reject this invitation, then you will be held responsible for all the evils of the Christians of your people.”
Dr. Hameedullah (Paris), a reliable verifier, has adduced a version of the above letter disclosed only a short time ago and identical to Ibn Al-Qaiyim’s narration. Dr. Hameedullah exerted painstaking effort and used all means of modern technology to verify the text of the letter, which reads as follows:
“In the Name of Allâh,the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. From Muhammad the Messenger of Allâh to Negus, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Peace be upon him who follows true guidance. Salutations, I entertain Allâh’s praise, there is no god but He, the Sovereign, the Holy, the Source of peace, the Giver of peace, the Guardian of faith, the Preserver of safety. I bear witness that Jesus, the son of Mary, is the spirit of Allâh and His Word which He cast into Mary, the virgin, the good, the pure, so that she conceived Jesus. Allâh created him from His spirit and His breathing as He created Adam by His Hand. I call you to Allâh Alone with no associate and to His obedience and to follow me and to believe in that which came to me, for I am the Messenger of Allâh. I invite you and your men to Allâh, the Glorious, the All-Mighty. I hereby bear witness that I have communicated my message and advice. I invite you to listen and accept my advice. Peace be upon him who follows true guidance.”
When ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari communicated the Apostolic letter to Negus, the latter took the parchment and placed it on his eye, descended to the floor, confessed his faith in Islam and wrote the following reply to the Prophet (Peace be upon him).
“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. From Negus Ashama to Muhammad, the Messenger of Allâh. Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allâh! and mercy and blessing from Allâh beside Whom there is no god. I have received your letter in which you have mentioned about Jesus and by the Lord of heaven and earth, Jesus is not more than what you say. We fully acknowledge that with which you have been sent to us and we have entertained your cousin and his companions. I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allâh, true and confirming (those who have gone before you), I pledge to you through your cousin and surrender myself through him to the Lord of the worlds.”
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) had asked Negus to send Ja‘far and his companions, the emigrants to Abyssinia (Ethiopia), back home. They came back to see the Prophet (Peace be upon him) in Khaibar. Negus later died in Rajab 9 A.H. shortly after Tabuk Ghazwa. The Prophet (Peace be upon him) announced his death and observed prayer in absentia for him.

Muhammad Letter to the Vicegerent of Egypt, called Muqawqas

The Prophet (s.a.a.w.) wrote to Juraij bin Matta, called Muqawqas, vicegerent of Egypt and Alexandria saying:
“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad servant of Allâh and His Messenger to Muqawqas, vicegerent of Egypt.
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance. Thereafter, I invite you to accept Islam. Therefore, if you want security, accept Islam. If you accept Islam, Allâh, the Sublime, shall reward you doubly. But if you refuse to do so, you will bear the burden of the transgression of all the Copts.
“Say [O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)]: ‘O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allâh, and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides Allâh.’ Then, if they turn away, say: ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims.’ ” [3:64]
Hatib bin Abi Balta‘a, who was chosen to communicate the message, requested an audience with Muqawqas before imparting the contents of the letter. He addressed Egypt’s vicegerent saying:
“There used to be someone before you who had arrogated the status of the Supreme Lord, so Allâh punished him and made an example of him in the Hereafter, and in this life; therefore, take warning and never set a bad example to others.” Muqawqas answered: “We are in no position to relinquish our religion except for a better one.”
Hatib resumed: “We invite you to embrace Islam, which will suffice you all what you may lose. Our Prophet has called people to profess this Faith, Quraish and the Jews stood against him as bitter enemies, whereas Christians stood closest to his Call. Upon my life, Moses’s news about Christ is identical to the latter’s good tidings about the advent of Muhammad; likewise, this invitation of ours to you to embrace Islam is similar to your invitation to the people of Torah to accept the New Testament. Once a Prophet rises in a nation, he is eligible for positive response, hence you are subject to the same Divine Law. Bear in mind that we have not come to dissuade you from religion of Christ but rather bidding you to adhere to its tenets.”
Muqawqas meditated over the contents of the letter deeply and said: “I have come to the conviction that this Prophet bids nothing abominable; he is neither a straying magician nor a lying soothsayer. He bears the true manifest seeds of Prophethood, and so I will consider the affair deeply.” He took the parchment and ordered that it be kept in an ivory casket. He called a scribe to write the following reply in Arabic:
“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muqawqas to Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah:
Peace be upon you. I have read your letter and understood its contents, and what you are calling for. I already know that the coming of a Prophet is still due, but I used to believe he would be born in Syria. I am sending you as presents two maids, who come from noble Coptic families; clothing and a steed for riding on. Peace be upon you.”
It is noteworthy that Muqawqas did not avail himself of this priceless opportunity and he did not embrace Islam. (Reference: Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum)

Muhammad Letter to Mundhir bin Sawa, Governor of Bahrain

The Prophet (Peace be upon him) despatched ‘Al-‘Ala’ bin Al-Hadrami to the governor of Bahrain, carrying a letter inviting him to embrace Islam. In reply, Al-Mundhir bin Sawa wrote the following letter:
“Allâh’s Messenger (Peace be upon him)! I received your injunctions. Prior to this, I read your letter, which you wrote to the people of Bahrain extending to them an invitation to Islam. Islam appealed to some of them and they entered the fold of Islam, while others did not find it appealing. In my country, there live Magians and Jews, and therefore you may inform me of the treatment to be extended to them.”
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) wrote the following letter in reply to his:
“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad, Messenger of Allâh to Mundhir bin Sawa.
Peace be on you! I praise Allâh with no associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
Thereafter, I remind you of Allâh, the Mighty, the Glorious. Whoever accepts admonition, does it for his own good. Whoever follows my messengers and acts in accordance with their guidance, he, in fact, accepts my advice.
My messengers have highly praised your behaviour. You shall continue in your present office. Give the new Muslims full chance to preach their religion. I accept your recommendation regarding the people of Bahrain, and I pardon the offences of the offenders; therefore, you may also forgive them.
Of the people of Bahrain whoever wants to go on in their Jewish or Magian faith, should be made to pay Jizya (poll-tax).”

Muhammad Letter to Haudha bin

“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad, Messenger of Allâh to Haudha bin ‘Ali:
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance. Be informed that my religion shall prevail
everywhere. You should accept Islam, and whatever under your command shall remain yours.”
The envoy chosen was Sulait bin ‘Amr Al-‘Amiri, who after communicating his message, carried back the following reply to the Prophet (Peace be upon him):
“The Faith, to which you invite me, is very good. I am a famous orator and poet, the Arabs highly respect me and I am of account among them. If you include me in your government, I am prepared to follow you.”
The governor then bestowed a reward on Sulait and presented him with clothes made of Hajr fabric.
Of course, he put all those presents in the trust of the Prophet (Peace be upon him):
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not accept Haudha’s demand. He usually turned down such peremptory tone, and would say that the whole matter was in the Hand of Allâh, Who gave His land to whoever He desired. Gabriel later came with the Revelation that Haudha had died. The Prophet (Peace be upon him), in the context of his comme nt on this news, said: “Yamama is bound to give rise to a liar who will arrogate Prophethood to himself but he will subsequently be killed.” In reply to
a question relating to the identity of the killer, the Prophet said “It is one of you, followers of Islam.”
(Ref: Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum)

Muhammad Letter to Harith bin Abi Shamir Al-Ghassani, King of Damascus

“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad, Messenger of Allâh to Al-Harith bin Abi Shamir.
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance, believes in it and regards it as true. I invite you to believe in Allâh Alone with no associate, thenceafter your kingdom will remain yours.”
Shuja‘ bin Wahab had the honour of taking the letter to Harith, who upon hearing the letter read in his audience, was madly infuriated and uttered: “Who dares to disposs me of my country, I’ll fight him (the Prophet),” and arrogantly rejected the Prophet’s invitation to the fold of Islam.

Muhammad Letter to the King of Oman

“In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
From Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah to Jaifer and ‘Abd Al-Jalandi.
Peace be upon him who follows true guidance; thereafter I invite both of you to the Call of Islam.
Embrace Islam. Allâh has sent me as a Prophet to all His creatures in order that I may instil fear of Allâh in the hearts of His disobedient creatures so that there may be left no excuse for those who deny Allâh. If you two accept Islam, you will remain in command of your country; but if you refuse my Call, you’ve got to remember that all your possessions are perishable. My horsemen will appropriate your land, and my Prophethood will assume preponderance over your kingship.”
‘Amr bin Al-’As, who was chosen to carry the letter, narrated the following story that happened before he was admitted into the audience of Jaifer.
“When I arrived in ‘Oman I contacted ‘Abd, who was known to be more mild-tempered than his brother:
• ‘Amr: I am the messenger of Allâh’s Prophet coming to see both, you and your brother.
‘Abd: You have to see my brother and read to him the letter you are carrying. He is my senior in both age and kingship. Incidentally, what is the purport of your mission?
‘Amr: The Prophet calls upon you to believe in Allâh Alone with no associate, discard any other deities and testify to the slavehood and Messengership of Muhammad.
‘Abd: O ‘Amr! You come from a noble family, but first of all, tell me what was your father’s attitude concerning this Faith? You know, we used to follow his steps.
‘Amr: Death overtook him before believing in Muhammad’s mission; I wish now he had
embraced Islam and been truthful to it before his death. I myself had adopted the same attitude until Allâh guided me towards Islam.
‘Abd: When did you embrace Islam?
‘Amr: When I was at Negus’s court. By the way, the latter did also enter into the fold of Islam.
‘Abd: What was his people’s reaction?
‘Amr: They approved of him and followed his steps.
‘Abd: The bishops and monks?
‘Amr: They did the same.
‘Abd: Beware ‘Amr of lying for this soon betrays man.
‘Amr: I never tell lies; moreover, our religion never allows it.
‘Abd: Has Hercules been informed of the Islamization of Negus?
‘Amr: Yes, of course.
‘Abd: How did you happen to know that?
‘Amr: Negus used to pay land tax to Hercules, but when the former embraced Islam, he
swore he would discontinue that tax. When this news reached Hercules, his courtiers urged him to take action against Negus but he refused and added that he himself would do the same if he were not sparing of his kingship.
‘Abd: What does your Prophet exhort you to do?
‘Amr: He exhorts us to obey Allâh, the All-Mighty, the All-Glorious, be pious and maintain good ties with family kin; he forbids disobedience, aggression, adultery, wine, idolatry and devotion to the cross.
‘Abd: Fair words and fair beliefs are those you are calling for. I wish my brother would follow me to believe in Muhammad (s.a.a.w.) and profess his religion, but my brother is too sparing of his kingship to become a subordinate.
‘Amr: Should your brother surrender himself to Islam, the Prophet would give him authority over his people and take alms tax from the wealthy people to be given to the needy.
‘Abd: That is fair behaviour. But what is this alms tax you have mentioned?
‘Amr: It is a Divine injunction that alms tax be taken from the well-to-do people who have surplus wealth and be distributed to the poor.
‘Abd: I doubt if this can work among our people.
‘Amr stayed for some days to be admitted into Jaifer’s court until he was finally granted this permit.
“He asked me to hand him the letter to read it. After that he asked me how Quraish reacted and I answered that they had followed him, some out of their own freewill and others overpowered by military fighting. Now, people have chosen Islam in preference to other creeds, and have realized through their mental insight that they had been straying in darkness. None, except you, is now out of the domain of Islam, so I advise you to embrace Islam so that you can provide security to yourself and your country.”
Here, he asked me to call on him the following day. The following day he showed some reluctance in receiving me but his brother, ‘Abd, interceded and I was given the chance to see him again but this time to address me in a threatening arrogant tone. However, after a private talk with his brother and reconsidering the whole situation, both brothers embraced Islam and proved to be true to Islam that had begun to make its way into this new area.
The context of this story reveals that this letter was sent at a much later date than the others, most likely after the conquest of Makkah.
Through these letters, the Prophet managed to communicate his Message to most monarchs at that time; some believed, while others remained obdurate and persisted in their disbelief. However, the idea of embracing Islam, and the advent of a new Prophet preoccupied all of them.

Letters of the Prophet (PBUH)

In the six year A.H., the Prophet (s.a.a.w.) decided to send messages to the kings beyond Arabia calling them to Islam. The Prophet attached great importance to this initiative. These messengers were going to distant lands with whom there was no agreement or treaty. They did not know the languages of these lands nor anything about the ways and disposition of their rulers. They were to invite these rulers to give up their religion and forsake their power and glory and enter the religion of a people who shortly before were almost their subjects. The mission was undoubtedly hazardous.
To make known his plan, the Prophet (s.a.a.w.) called his companions together and addressed them. He started by praising God and thanking Him. He then recited the Shahadah and went on:
"I want to send some of you to the rulers of foreign lands but don't dispute with me as the Israelites disputed with Jesus, the son of Mary.
"O Prophet of God, we shall carry out whatever you wish," they responded. "Send us wherever you desire."
The Prophet commissioned six of his Sahabah to carry his letters to Arab and foreign rulers. In order to authenticate the credentials of his envoys, a silver seal was made in which were graven the words: “ Muhammad the Messenger of Allâh.” Prophet Muhammad (s.a.a.w.) himself was unlettered, so the writings of his messages were done by Sahabah. Envoys were chosen on the basis of their experience and knowledge, and sent on their errands in Muharram in the year 7 A.H., a few days before heading for Khaibar.

Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon

After praising & thanking GOD he said:
"O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefor listen to what I am saying to you very carefully & TAKE THESE WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY.

O people, just as you regard this month, this city as sacred, so regard the life & property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury(Interest), therefor all Interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity.

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

O people it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your waives only under ALLAH's trust & with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed & clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well & be kind to them for they are your partners & committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friendship with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

O people, listen to me earnest, worship your LORD, say your five daily prayers, fast during the month of Ramadan, & give your wealth to Zakat(Charity). Perform Hajj if you can afford to.

All mankind are from Adam & Eve, an Arab has no Superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has superiority over an Arab;ALSO a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety & good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to another Muslim & that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood.Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow muslim unless it was given freely & willingly. Do not therefor, do unjustice to yourselves.

Remember, one day you will appear before the GOD & answer for your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

O people, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME & NO FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefor, O people, understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, The QURAN & my examples the Sunnah & if you follow these you will never go astray.

Tears of Muhammad (PBUH)

> >Suddenly, there was a person who said salaam
> >
> >
> >
> >"May I come in?" he asked.
> >
> >
> >
> >But Fatimah did not allow him to enter the room.
> >
> >
> >
> >"I'm sorry, my father is ill," said Fatimah, and turned back and closed the
> >door.
> >
> >
> >
> >She went back to her father who had opened his eyes and he asked Fatimah,
> >"Who was he, my daughter?"
> >
> >
> >
> >"I don't know, my father. It's the first time I'm seeing him," Fatimah said
> >gently.
> >
> >
> >
> >Then, Rasulullah (SAW) looked at his daughter with a trembled look, as if
> >he wanted to reminisce about every part of his daughter's face.
> >
> >
> >
> >"Know one thing! He is who erases the temporary pleasure; he is who
> >separates the companionship in
> >the world. He is the angel of death," said Rasulullah (SAW).
> >
> >
> >
> >Fatimah bore the bomb of her cry.
> >
> >
> >
> >The death angel came toward him, but Rasulullah (SAW) asked why Jibril did
> >not come along with him.
> >
> >
> >
> >Then, Jibril was called. Jibril was ready in the sky to welcome the soul of
> >Habibullah and the leader of the earth.
> >
> >
> >
> >"O Jibril, explain to me about my rights in front of ALLAH?" Rasulullah
> >(SAW) asked with a weak voice.
> >
> >
> >
> >"The doors of the sky have opened; the angels are waiting for your soul."
> >
> >
> >
> >"All jannats are open widely waiting for you," Jibril said. But, in fact,
> >all that did not make Rasulullah (SAW) relieved. His eyes were still full
> >of worry.
> >
> >
> >
> >"You are not happy to hear this news?" asked Jibril.
> >
> >
> >
> >"Tell me
> >about the destiny of my people in the future?"
> >
> >
> >
> >"Don't worry, o Rasul ALLAH. I heard ALLAH told me: 'I make jannat haram
> >for everyone, except the people of Muhammad" Jibril said.
> >
> >
> >
> >It became closer and closer, the time for Malaekat Izrail to do his work.
> >Slowly, Rasulullah's (SAW) soul was pulled. It seemed that the body of
> >Rasulullah (SAW) was full of sweat; the nerves of his neck became tight.
> >
> >
> >
> >"Jibril, how pain this sakaratul maut is!"
> >
> >
> >
> >Rasulullah (SAW) uttered a groan slowly. Fatimah closed her eyes, Ali sat
> >beside her bow deeply and Jibril turned his face back.
> >
> >
> >
> >"Am I repugnant to you that you turn your face back o Jibril?"
> >
> >Rasulullah (SAW) asked to the Deliverer of Wahyu.
> >
> >
> >
> >"Who is the one who could see the Habibullah in his sakaratul maut,"
> >Jibril said.
> >
> >
> >
> >Not for a while, Rasulullah (SAW) uttered a groan because of unbearable
> >pain.
> >
> >
> >
> >"O ALLAH, how greatest is this sakaratul maut. Give me all these pains,
> >don't to my people."
> >
> >
> >
> >The body of Rasulullah (SAW) became cold, his feet and chest did not move
> >anymore.
> >
> >
> >
> >His lips vibrated as if he wanted to say something, Ali took his ear close
> >to Rasulullah (SAW).
> >
> >
> >
> >"Uushiikum bis shalati, wa maa malakat aimanuku? take care the shalat and
> >take care the weak people among you."
> >
> >
> >
> >Outside the room, there were cries shouted each other, sahabat held each
> >other. Fatimah closed her face with her hands and, again, Ali took his ear
> >close to Rasulullah's (SAW) mouth which became bluish.
> >
> >
> >
> >"Ummatii, ummatii, ummatii?" ? "My people, my people, my
> >people."
> >
> >
> >
> >And the life of the noble man ended.
> >
> >
> >
> >Could we love each other like him? Allahumma sholli 'ala Muhammad wa baarik
> >wa salim 'alaihi.
> >
> >
> >
> >How deep is Rasulullah's (SAW) love to us.

Characteristics of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)


His dress generally consisted of a shirt, tamad (trousers), a sheet thrown round the sholders and a turban. On rare occasions, he would put on costly robes presented to him by foreign emissaries in the later part of his life (Ahmed, Musnad, Hafiz Bin Qaiyyam).

His blanket had several patches (Tirmizi). He had very few spare clothes, but he kept them spotlessy clean (Bukhari). He wanted others also to put on simple but clean clothes. Once he saw a person putting on dirty clothes and remarked,
"Why can't this man wash them." (Abu Dawud, Chapter "Dress").

On another occasion he enquired of a person in dirty clothes whether he had any income. Upon getting a reply in the affirmative, he observed,

"When Allah has blessed you with His bounty, your appearence should reflect it." (Abu Dawud)

He used to observe: "Cleanliness is piety".

Mode of living

His house was but a hut with walls of unbaked clay and a thatched roof of palm leaves covered by camel skin. He had separate apartments for his wives, a small room for each made of similar materials. His own apartment contained a rope cot, a pillow stuffed with palm leaves , the skin of some animal spread on the floor and a water bag of leather and some weapons. These were all his earthly belongings, besides a camel, a horse, and an ass and some land which he had aquired in the later part of his life (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud). Once a few of his disciples, noticing the imprint of his mattress on his body, wished to give him a softer bed but he politely declined the offer saying,

"What have I to do with worldly things. My connection with the world is like that of a traveler resting for a while underneath the shade of a tree and then moving on."

Amr Ibn Al-Harith, a brother in law of the prophet (pbuh), says that when the prophet died, he did not leave a cent, a slave man or woman, or any property except his white mule, his weapons and a piece of land which he had dedicated for the good of the community (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari).

He advised the people to live simple lives and himself practised great austerities. Even when he had become the virtual king of arabia, he lived an austere life bordering on privation. His wife Aiysha (ra) says that there was hardly a day in his life when he had two square meals (Muslim, Sahih Muslim, Vol.2, pg 198). When he died there was nothing in his house except a few seeds of barley left from a mound of the grain obtained from a Jew by pawning his armour (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter "Aljihad").

He had declared unlawful for himself and his family anything given by the people by way of zakat or sadaqa (types of charity). He was so particular about this that he would not appoint any member of his family as a zakat collector (Sahah-Kitab Sadqat).

His manners and disposition

"By the grace of Allah, you are gentle towards the people; if you had been stern and ill-tempered, they would have dispersed from round about you" (translation of Qur'an, Chapter 3: Verse 159)

About himself the prophet (pbuh) said

"Allah has sent me as an apostle so that I may demonstrate perfection of character, refinement of manners and loftiness of deportment." (Malik, Mawatta; Ahmed, Musnad; Mishkat)

By nature he was gentle and kind hearted, always inclined to be gracious and to overlook the faults of others. Politeness and courtesy, compassion and tenderness, simplicity and humility, sympathy and sincerity were some of the keynotes of his character. In the cause of right and justice he could be resolute and severe but more often than not, his severity was tempered with generosity. He had charming manners which won him the affection of his followers and secured their devotion. Though virtual king of Arabia and an apostle of Allah, he never assumed an air of superiority. Not that he had to conceal any such vein by practice and artifice: with fear of Allah, sincere humility was ingrained in his heart.

He used to say,

"I am a Prophet of Allah but I do not know what will be my end." (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter "Al-Janaiz")

In one of his sermons calculated to instill the fear of Allah and the day of reckoning in the hearts of men, he said,

"O people of Quraish be prepared for the hereafter, I cannot save you from the punishment of Allah; O Bani Abd Manaf, I cannot save you from Allah; O Abbas, son of Abdul Mutalib, I cannot protect you either; O Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, even you I cannot save." (Sahahin)

He used to pray,

"O Allah! I am but a man. If I hurt any one in any manner, then forgive me and do not punish me." (Ahmed, Musnad, Vol. 6 pg. 103)

He always received people with courtesy and showed respect to older people and stated:

"To honor an old man is to show respect to Allah."

He would not deny courtesy even to wicked persons. It is stated that a person came to his house and asked permission for admission. The Prophet (pbuh) remarked that he was not a good person but might be admitted. When he came in and while he remained in the house, he was shown full courtesy.

When he left Aiysha (ra) said, "You did not think well of this man, but you treated him so well."

The Prophet (pbuh) replied, "He is a bad person in the sight of Allah who does not behave courteously and people shun his company bacause of his bad manners." (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari)

He was always the first to greet another and would not withdraw his hand from a handshake till the other man withdrew his. If one wanted to say something in his ears, he would not turn away till one had finished (Abu Dawud, Tirmizi). He did not like people to get up for him and used to say,

"Let him who likes people to stand up in his honour, he should seek a place in hell." (Abu Dawud, Kitabul Adab, Muhammadi Press, Delhi).

He would himself, however, stand up when any dignitary came to him. He had stood up to receive the wet nurse who had reared him in infancy and had spread his own sheet for her. His foster brother was given similar treatment. He avoided sitting at a prominent place in a gathering, so much so that people coming in had difficulty in spotting him and had to ask which was the Prophet (pbuh). Quite frequently uncouth bedouins accosted him in their own gruff and impolite manner but he never took offence. (Abu Dawud Kitabul Atama).

He used to visit the poorest of ailing persons and exhorted all muslims to do likewise (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter "Attendance on ailing persons"). He would sit with the humblest of persons saying that righteousness alone was the criterion of one's superiority over another. He invariably invited people be they slaves, servants or the poorest believers, to partake with him of his scanty meals (Tirmizi, Sunan Tirmizi).

Whenever he visited a person he would first greet him and then take his permission to enter the house. He advised the people to follow this etiquette and not to get annoyed if anyone declined to give permission, for it was quite likely the person concerned was busy otherwise and did not mean any disrespect (Ibid).

There was no type of household work too low or too undignified for him. Aiysha (ra) has stated,

"He always joined in household work and would at times mend his clothes, repair his shoes and sweep the floor. He would milk, tether, and feed his animals and do the household shopping." (Qazi Iyaz: Shifa; Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter: Kitabul Adab)

He would not hesitate to do the menial work of others, particularly of orphans and widows (Nasi, Darmi). Once when there was no male member in the house of the companion Kabab Bin Arat who had gone to the battlefield, he used to go to his house daily and milk his cattle for the inhabitants (Ibn Saad Vol. 6, p 213).


He was especially fond of children and used to get into the spirit of childish games in their company. He would have fun with the children who had come back from Abyssinia and tried to speak in Abyssinian with them. It was his practice to give lifts on his camel to children when he returned from journeys (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2 pg.886). He would pick up children in his arms, play with them, and kiss them. A companion, recalling his childhood, said,

"In my childhood I used to fell dates by throwing stones at palm trees. Somebody took me to the Prophet (pbuh) who advised me to pick up the dates lying on the ground but not to fell them with stones. He then patted me and blessed me." (Abu Dawud)

Daily routine

On the authority of Ali, Tirmizi has recorded that the Prophet (pbuh) had carefully apportioned his time according to the demands on him for offering worship to Allah public affairs, and personal matters.

After the early morning prayers he would remain sitting in the mosque reciting praises of Allah till the sun rose and more people collected. He would then preach to them. After the sermons were over, he would talk genially with the people, enquire about their welfare and even exchange jokes with them. Taxes and revenues were also disrtibuted at this time (Muslim, Sahih Muslim Tirmizi, Sunan Tirmizi). He would then offer chaste prayers and go home and get busy with household work (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi).

He would again return to the mosque for the mid-day and afternoon prayers, listen to the problems of the people and give solace and guidance to them.

After the afternoon prayers, he would visit each of his wives and, after the evening prayers, his wives would collect at one place and he would have his dinner (Muslim, Sahih Muslim). After the night prayers, he would recite some suras of the Quran and before going to bed would pray: "O Allah, I die and live with thy name on my lips."

On getting up he would say,

"All praise to Allah Who has given me life after death and towards Whom is the return."

He used to brush his teeth five times a day, before each of the daily prayers. After midnight, he used to get up for the Tahajjud prayers which he never missed even once in his life (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari). He was not fastidious about his bed: sometimes he slept on his cot, sometimes on a skin or ordinary matress, and sometimes on the ground (Zarqani).

On friday he used to give sermons after the weekly "Jumma" prayers. He was not annoyed if anyone interrupted him during the sermons for anything. It is stated that once, while he was delivering his sermon, a bedouin approached him and said, "O messenger of Allah, I am a traveler and am ignorant of my religion." The prophet (pbuh) got down from the pulpit, explained the salient features of Islam to him and then resumed the sermon (Tirmizi, Sunan Tirmizi).

On another occasion his grandson Husain, still a child, came tumbling to him while he was delivering a sermon. He descended and took him in his lap and then continued the sermon (Ibid).

Trust in Allah (swt)

Muhammad (pbuh) preached to the people to trust in Allah (swt). His whole life was a sublime example of the precept. In the loneliness of Makkah, in the midst of persecution and danger, in adversity and tribulations, and in the thick of enemies in the battles of Uhud and Hunain, complete faith and trust in Allah (swt) appears as the dominant feature in his life. However great the danger that confronted him, he never lost hope and never allowed himself to be unduly agitated. Abu Talib knew the feelings of the Quraish when the Prophet (pbuh) started his mission. He also knew the lengths to which the Quraish could go, and requested the Prophet (pbuh) to abandon his mission, but the latter calmly replied,

"Dear uncle, do not go by my loneliness. Truth will not go unsupported for long. The whole of Arabia and beyond will one day espouse its cause." (Ibn Hisham, Sirat-ur-Rasul.)

When the attitude of the Quraish became more threatening, Abu Talib again begged his nephew to renounce his mission but the Prophet's (pbuh) reply was:

"O my uncle, if they placed the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left, to force me to renounce my work, verily I would not desist thereform until Allah made manifest His cause, or I perished in the attempt." (Ibid)

To another well-wisher, he said, "Allah will not leave me forelorn."

A dejected and oppressed disciple was comforted with the words:

"By Allah, the day is near when this faith will reach its pinnacle and none will have to fear anyone except Allah." (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari)

It was the same trust in Allah (swt) which emboldened the Prophet (pbuh) to say his prayers openly in the haram in the teeth of opposition. The Quraish were once collected there and were conspiring to put an end to his life when he next entered the haram. His young daughter Fatima, who happened to overhear their talk rushed weeping to her father and told him of the designs of the Quraish. He consoled her, did his ablutions and went to the Kaaba to say prayers. There was only consternation among the Quraish when they saw him (Ahmed, Musnad, Vol. 1, pg. 368).

Then leaving his house for Madinah he asked Ali (ra) to sleep on his bed and told him,

"Do not worry, no one will be able to do you any harm" (Tabari, Ibn Hisham)

Even though the enemies had surrounded the house, he left the house reciting the Quranic verse:

"We have set a barricade before them and a barricade behind them and (thus) have covered them so that they see not" (translation of Qur'an 36:9 )

Abu Bakr was frightened when pursuers came close to the cavern in which he and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) were hiding during their flight, but the Prophet (pbuh) heartened him, "Grieve not. Allah is with us."

A guard was kept at the Prophet's house in Madinah because of the danger that surrounded him but he had it withdrawn when the Quranic verse was revealed:

"Allah will protect you from the people" (translation of Qur'an 5:67).

A man was caught waiting in ambush to assault the Prophet (pbuh) but he was directed to be released with the words,

"Even if this man wanted to kill me, he could not." (Ahmed, Musnad, Vol.3 pg. 471)

A Jewess from Khaibar had put poison in the Prophet's (pbuh) food. He spat it out after taking a morsel but a disciple who had his fill died the next day. The Jewess was brought before the prophet (pbuh) who questioned her:

"Why did you do this?" "To kill you," was her defiant reply. She was told, "Allah would not have allowed you to do it." (Muslim, Sahih Muslim.)

In the battle of Uhud when the rear guard action of the Makkan army had disorganized the Muslim army and had turned the tables, the Prophet (pbuh) stood as firm as a rock even though he had suffered personal injuries. When Abu Sufiyan taunted the Muslims and shouted "Victory to hubal!" (hubal was one of their idols), the Prophet (pbuh) asked Umar (ra) to shout back, "Allah is our protector and friend. You have no protector and friend. Allah is Great, Magnificent." (Ibn Hisham, Sirat-Ur-Rasul).

Again in the battle of Hunain, when the unexpected assault of the army had swept the Muslim force off its feet and a defeat seemed imminent, the Prophet (pbuh) did not yield ground. With trust in Allah (swt) he showed such courage that the Muslim army rallied behind him to win a signal victory.


The Prophet (pbuh) asked people to be just and kind. As the supreme judge and arbiter, as the leader of men, as generalissimo of a rising power, as a reformer and apostle, he had always to deal with men and their affairs. He had often to deal with mutually inimical and warring tribes when showing justice to one carried the danger of antagonizing the other, and yet he never deviated from the path of justice. In administering justice, he made no distinction between believers and nonbelievers, friends and foes, high and low.

From numerous instances reported in the traditions, a few are given below.

Sakhar, a chief of a tribe, had helped Muhammad (pbuh) greatly in the seige of Taif, for which he was naturally obliged to him. Soon after, two charges were brought against Sakhar: one by Mughira of illegal confinement of his (Mughira's) aunt and the other by Banu Salim of forcible occupation of his spring by Sakhar. In both cases, he decided against Sakhar and made him undo the wrong. (Abu Dawud, Sunan Dawud, pg.80)

Abdullah Bin Sahal, a companion, was deputed to collect rent from Jews of Khaibar. His cousin Mahisa accompanied him but, on reaching Khaibar, they had separated. Abdullah was waylaid and done to death. Mahisa reported this tragedy to the Prophet (pbuh) but as there were no eye-witnesses to identify the guilty, he did not say anything to the Jews and paid the blood-money out of the state revenues (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari Nasai).

A woman of the Makhzoom family with good connections was found guilty of theft. For the prestige of the Quraish, some prominent people including Asama Bin Zaid interceded to save her from punishment. The Prophet (pbuh) refused to condone the crime and expressed displeasure saying,
"Many a community ruined itself in the past as they only punished the poor and ignored the offences of the exalted. By Allah, if Muhammad's (My) daughter Fatima would have committed theft, her hand would have been severed." (Bukhari, Sahh Bukhari, Chapter "Alhadood")

The Jews, in spite of their hostility to the Prophet (pbuh), were so impressed by his impartiallity and sense of justice that they used to bring their cases to him, and he decided them according to Jewish law. (Abu Dawud, Sunan Dawud)
Once, while he was distributing the spoils of war, people flocked around him and one man almost fell upon him. He pushed the men with a stick causing a slight abrasion. He was so sorry about this that he told the man that he could have his revenge, but the man said, "O messenger of Allah, I forgive you." (Abu Dawud, Kitablu Diyat).

In his fatal illness, the Prophet (pbuh) proclaimed in a concourse assembled at his house that if he owed anything to anyone the person concerned could claim it; if he had ever hurt anyone's person, honor or property, he could have his price while he was yet in this world. A hush fell on the crowd. One man came forward to claim a few dirhams which were paid at once. (Ibn Hisham, Sirat-ur-Rasul)

Muhammad (pbuh) asked people to shun notions of racial, family or any other form of superiority based on mundane things and said that righteousness alone was the criterion of one's superiority over another. It has already been shown how he mixed with everyone on equal terms, how he ate with slaves, servants and the poorest on the same sheet (a practice that is still followed in Arabia), how he refused all privileges and worked like any ordinary laborer.

Two instances may, however, be quoted here:

Once the Prophet (pbuh) visited Saad Bin Abadah. While returning Saad sent his son Quais with him. The Prophet (pbuh) asked Quais to mount his camel with him. Quais hesitated out of respect but the Prophet (pbuh) insisted: "Either mount the camel or go back." Quais decided to go back. (Abu Dawud, Kitabul Adab)

On another occasion he was traveling on his camel over hilly terrain with a disciple, Uqba Bin Aamir. After going some distance, he asked Uqba to ride the camel, but Uqba thought this would be showing disrespect to the Prophet (pbuh). But the Prophet (pbuh) insisted and he had to comply. The Prophet (pbuh) himself walked on foot as he did not want to put too much load on the animal. (Nasai pg. 803)
The prisioners of war of Badr included Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet (pbuh). Some people were prepared to forgo their shares and remit the Prophet's (pbuh) ransom but he declined saying that he could make no distinctions. (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari, Chapter "Ransoms")

During a halt on a journey, the companions apportioned work among themselves for preparing food. The Prophet (pbuh) took upon himself the task of collecting firewood. His companions pleaded that they would do it and that he need not take the trouble, but he replied,

"It is true, but I do not like to attribute any distinction to myself. Allah does not like the man who considers himself superior to his companions." (Zarqani, Vol 4 pg. 306)

Kindness to animals

The Prophet (pbuh) not only preached to the people to show kindness to each other but also to all living souls. He forbade the practice of cutting tails and manes of horses, of branding animals at any soft spot, and of keeping horses saddled unnecessarily (Muslim, Sahih Muslim). If he saw any animal over-loaded or ill-fed he would pull up the owner and say,

"Fear Allah in your treatment of animals." (Abu Dawud, Kitab Jihad).

A companion came to him with the young ones of a bird in his sheet and said that the mother bird had hovered over them all along. He was directed to replace her offspring in the same bush (Mishkat, Abu Dawud)

During a journey, somebody picked up some birds eggs. The bird's painful note and fluttering attracted the attention of the Prophet (pbuh), who asked the man to replace the eggs (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari).

As his army marched towards Makkah to conquer it, they passed a female dog with puppies. The Prophet (pbuh) not only gave orders that they should not be disturbed, but posted a man to see that this was done.
He stated,

"Verily, there is heavenly reward for every act of kindness done to a living animal."

Love for the poor

The Prophet (pbuh) enjoined upon Muslims to treat the poor kindly and to help them with alms, zakat, and in other ways. He said:
"He is not a perfect muslim who eats his fill and lets his neighbor go hungry."

He asked, "Do you love your Creator? Then love your fellow beings first."

Monopoly is unlawful in Islam and he preached that "It is diffucult for a man laden with riches to climb the steep path that leads to bliss."

He did not prohibit or discourage the aquisition of wealth but insisted that it be lawfully aquired by honest means and that a portion of it would go to the poor. He advised his followers "To give the laborer his wages before his perspiration dried up."

He did not encourage beggary either and stated that "Allah is gracious to him who earns his living by his own labor, and that if a man begs to increase his property, Allah will diminish it and whoever has food for the day, it is prohibited for him to beg."

To his wife he said, "O Aysha, love the poor and let them come to you and Allah will draw you near to Himself." (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari)
One or two instances of the Prophet's (pbuh) concern for the poor may be given here. A Madinan, Ibad Bin Sharjil, was once starving. He entered an orchard and picked some fruit. The owner of the orchard gave him a sound beating and stripped off his clothes. The poor man appealed to the Prophet (pbuh) who remonstrated the owner thus: "This man was ignorant, you should have dispelled his ignorance; he was hungry, you should have fed him." His clothes were restored to the Madinan and, in addition, some grain was given to him (Abu Dawud, Kitabul Jihad).

A debtor, Jabir Bin Abdullah, was being harassed by his creditor as he could not clear his debt owing to the failure of his date crop. The Prophet (pbuh) went with Jabir to the house of the creditor and pleaded with him to give Jabir some more time but the creditor was not prepared to oblige. The Prophet (pbuh) then went to the oasis and having seen for himself that the crop was really poor, he again approached the creditor with no better result. He then rested for some time and approached the creditor for a third time but the latter was adamant. The Prophet (pbuh) went again to the orchard and asked Jabir to pluck the dates. As Allah would have it, the collection not only sufficed to clear the dues but left something to spare (Bukhari, Sahih Bukhari).

His love for the poor was so deep that he used to pray:

"O Allah, keep me poor in my life and at my death and raise me at resurrection among those who are poor." (Nasai, Chapter: Pardon)