Conquest Of Makkah

The truce of Hudaybiyah was broken by the Quraish when they sided with the tribe of Banu Bakr (with whom they had a pact to help one another), they attacked the tribe of Khuza'a who were the allies of the Muslims. The treaty was no longer effective. Abu Sufyan realized this and did his best to revive the treaty, but the Muslims had already realized that the kuffar were not to be trusted, and the treaty was never revived. This was a victory for the Muslims.
On hearing the news that the kuffar had broken the truce Rasulullah prepared to leave for Makkah. Every precaution was taken to keep the kuffar unaware of the coming of the Muslim army. It was the 10th day of Ramadaan in the year 8 Hijri that an army of 10,000 Muslims marched towards Makkah. The Muslims encamped at Mar-ur-Zahraan, a place a few kilometers from Makkah.
When the shepherds of Makkah returned in the evening they reported to the Makkans that a huge army was encamped outside Makkah at Mar-uz-Zahraan. Abu Sufyaan went to investigate who this army was and what were they doing in the valley of Makkah. During his investigation he met Hazrat Abbas (R.A.), the uncle of Rasulullah who convinced Abu Sufyaan to have an audience with Rasulullah . Abu Sufyaan the arch-enemy of Islaam who had instigated so many battles against the Muslims was now in the tent of the Prophet . Rasulullah our Nabi offered him protection from any harm.
The Muslim army triumphantly entered Makkah without any bloodshed and the kuffar surrendered without an attempt to resist. The city of Makkah was now at the mercy of Rasulullah and the Muslims. Everybody was present in the courtyard of the Haram (sanctuary of the Ka'ba). The enemies of Rasulullah and Islaam were helpless. Rasulullah asked them: 'What do you expect at my hands?'. The voices of their hearts rang out: 'Kindness and pity, gracious brother, gracious nephew'. They were not disappointed. Rasulullah used the noble words of Hazrat Yusuf A.S. When he addressed his brothers: 'Have no fear this day, May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy'.
Hinda, the wife of Abu Sufyaan, who had mutilated the body of Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) came in the presence of Rasulullah covered in a veil. The most bitter enemy was touched with general amnesty (general pardon) of Rasulullah and accepted Islaam. Rasulullah purified the sacred House of Allah (Ka'ba) removing all its 360 idols and stones, reciting "Truth has come and Falsehood vanished and no more shall falsehood return" (Sahih al-Bukhari.) The sanctuary of the Ka'ba contained such idols as Hubal, Latt and Manaat. They saw their downfall for they were nothing but pieces of stones. Now every nook and corner of Makkah witnessed and resounded with the call of Tauheed. Rasulullah also proclaimed that : 'Allah has forbidden the sale of intoxicants and usury (Interest) is declared as Haraam'.
It was indeed a unique conquest for Islaam and triumph of Rasulullah 's unshakable faith in his sacred cause. Witness our beloved Nabi now seated on mount Safa delivering his sermon to the multitude of people, contrast this with his flight (Hijrat), stay in the Cave of Thoor and receiving wounds in the battles. Now his faith in 'SURELY ALLAH IS WITH US' is the secret of his success in life and mission.
Rasulullah had left Madinah for Makkah with the Muslim Army on Wednesday 10th Ramadhaan 8 A.H. and entered Makkah on the 20th of Ramadhaan and on that very day Makkah was conquered. He remained in Makkah for about 10-15 days and thereafter returned to Madinah Tayibah.

Battle Of Hunain

Makkah had been the nucleus centre of Religion in Arabia and the Capital of Hedjaz. When the Islaamic flag flew from the top of the Ka'ba, the whole of Arabia recognised this as the symbol of Islaam's truthfulness.
After the conquest of Makkah, people in every part of the land were leaving idol-worshipping and entering the peaceful fold of Islaam. The two tribes situated between Makkah and Taif, Viz, Hawazan and Saqif thought themselves to be superior and refused to embrace Islaam. The chief of the Hawazan tribe Maalik bin Auf, instigated the neighbouring tribes and gathered a huge army to harm Islaam. After receiving the news of this threat, Rasulullah prepared an army of 12,000 men including 2000 Makkans and marched out of Makkah towards the valley of Hunain.
The people of Hawazan were noted for their archery. As the Muslims advanced, they were met with attacks of arrows from all sides and the main army attacked from the front. The Muslim army could not stand the fierce attack of the enemy arrows and fell back. The retreat caused great confusion among the Muslim soldiers. Even the Muhajireen and Ansaar retreated and chaos prevailed. Rasulullah was left with a small band of Sahaba and they fought back with great courage and determination. Hazrat Abbas (R.A.) and the heroes of Islaam descended from their camels and horses and attacked the enemy with great ferocity. When the standard bearer of the enemy fell dead all turned and retreated.
Taif was inhabited by the Saqif tribe and within two years of the Battle of Hunain they voluntarily embraced Islaam.

Treaty Of Hudaybiyah

In the year 6 A.H. Rasulullah saw a vision in which he found himself and the Sahaba entering the holy place of Makkah to perform Hajj. So he set out for Makkah in the month of Zil-Qaadah 6 A.H. with fourteen hundred Sahaba to perform Umrah, without the least intention of going into battle. To avoid any misunderstanding and impress upon the kuffar that it was entirely a peaceful mission, he ordered that none should carry arms except a sheathed sword, a common feature in those days. Camels for sacrifice were taken also. When Rasulullah approached Makkah, he encamped at Hudaybiyah, a mountainous plain, a few kilometres from Makkah in the direction of Jeddah. The kuffar did not allow them to advance despite the peaceful intentions of the Muslims.
Hazrat Uthman bin Affan (R.A.) the son-in-law of Rasulullah was sent as an envoy (negotiator), to explain to the Quraish of Makkah of the intentions of Rasulullah and the Muslims. While Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) was in the Haram a report reached the Muslim camp that Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) has been murdered. The news caused a great stir in the Muslim camp. Rasulullah sat under a tree and called the Sahaba to take a fresh oath to fight to the last man. This pledge is known as 'BAI'AT-UR-RIDHWAAN'.
After some time Hazrat Uthman (R.A.) returned unharmed. The kuffar sent Suhail bin Amr to come to terms with the Muslims. When Rasulullah saw Suhail bin Amr from a distance he said that now matters have become easy. Since the kuffar had sent him i.e. Suhail bin Amr their intention is to make peace. A pact was drawn up, both parties agreeing to maintain peace for ten years on the following conditions-:
(1) The Muslims would return to Madinah without performing Umrah. (2) They would come for Umrah the following year, and would stay in Makkah for only three days. (3) They shall not come bearing arms except the sword. (4) They would not take any Muslim living in Makkah to Madinah, and would not stop any Muslim from staying in Makkah. (5) If any Makkan Muslim went to Madinah the Muslims would return him to Makkah, but if any Muslim from Madinah went to Makkah he would not be returned to Madinah. (6) The Kuffar would neither attack Muslims nor help others against them, but would remain neutral in case of Muslims fighting a third party. (7) All the Arab tribes shall be free to enter into alliance with whichever party they like.

Battle Of Ahzab (TRENCHES)

In the year 5 A.H. the Makkans made another great effort to destroy the Muslims with the help of the Jews and the desert tribes of Ghatafan. This great army of 10,000 men, 4000 camels and 300 horses marched towards Madinah under the command of Abu Sufyaan. The coming danger seemed to cast a great gloom over Madinah. When Rasulullah was informed of the approach of the big army he summoned the Sahaba to devise means to meet the great danger.
On the advise of Hazrat Salmaan Faarsi (R.A.), it was decided that a trench be dug. Since Madinah was surrounded on two sides by lava rock and palm groves on the third side it was decided to dig the trench on the open approaches. Rasulullah with the assistance of the Muhajireen and the Ansaar got down to the difficult task of digging the trench. They made the trench 5 meters deep and 5 meters wide.
All the time the Sahaba were marvellously inspired by Rasulullah himself who worked as a labourer amongst them. The enemy approached Madinah and faced a setback when they saw the deep trench around the town. They settled down to a siege. The siege went on for 27 days. They failed to penetrate the defiance of the Muslims.
There was no hand combat since the trench was five meters wide. However, arrows were being showered from both sides. Amr bin Abd, a kuffar fighter, made his horse jump over a narrow portion of the trench. As soon as he reached the other side, Zulfiqar, the sword of Hazrat Ali (R.A.) flashed out and fell upon the enemy and killed him. Hazrat Ali (R.A.) triumphantly raised the war cry Allah hu Akbar- Allah is the Greatest.
On the twenty seventh night of the siege a severe storm approached Madinah. The effect of this severe storm was most devastating for the Kuffar. Their tents were uprooted, goods were blown about, fires were extinguished and the whole kuffar army was in utter fear and in a state of confusion. Under the circumstances the kuffar army fled in disarray.

Relations with Jews

When Rasulullah came to Madinah, he signed a treaty (agreement) with the Jews to live in peace and harmony and help each other against anyone who wanted to attack Madinah. The Jews contravened (broke) the treaty and conspired (made plans) with the Quraish of Makkah, the Munafiqs and other enemies of Islaam to bring to an end the mission of Rasulullah .
Rasulullah ordered the Banu Qainuqah out of Madinah and they went and settled in Syria. Then the Banu Nadhir were ordered to leave Madinah. They refused to make a new agreement and they attempted to assassinate Rasulullah . Some of the Banu Nadir clan settled in Khaibar while others went and settled in Syria. All this happened in the 4th year of Hijrat. In the year 5 Hijrat the Banu Quraizah joined the kuffar against the Muslims in the Battle of Ahzab. After a siege (blockade) of one month they (the Banu Quraizah) gave up and requested that Hazrat Sa'ad bin Mu'az (R.A.) be asked to decide what should be done with them. In passing judgment Hazrat Sa'ad bin Mu'az (R.A.) ordered that the able bodies and active fighters be put to death, the women and children to be treated as prisoners of war and their goods and property to be handed over as spoils of war to be distributed among the poor Muslim workers. This decision was compatible with the commands of the Taura (The Book of the Jews),

Battle Of Uhad

The fire of vengeance was blindly burning in the hearts of the Makkans for they had met with a crushing defeat at Badr. In the third year of Hijrah they marched with 3,000 well armed solders towards Madinah. The kuffar of Makkah having lost their greatest leaders at Badr chose Abu Sufyaan as their commander, who swore that he would not rest until he had full vengeance on the Muslims.
Rasulullah made mushwarah (consultation) with the Muslims regarding the expected attack. It was finally decided to repel the attack outside the city of Madinah. Rasulullah offered Jum'a Salaat at Masjid-e-Nabwi and left for Uhud, a mountainous region 5 km north of Madinah with a thousand men on 14 Shawwal 3 A.H. Abdullah bin Ubay the leader of the Munafiqs deserted the Muslims with 300 of his men, reducing the strength of the Muslim army to 700 men, poorly equipped in arms but filled with enthusiasm to defend the truth at all cost.
Rasulullah and the Muslims camped with the mountain behind them. On the one side there was a mountainous pass and there was danger of an attack from behind, so Rasulullah posted 50 archers on Mount Rumat under the command of Hazrat Abdullah bin Jubair (R.A.) with strict orders not to leave the post at any account, irrespective of victory or defeat.
On Saturday 15 Shawwal 3 A.H. the opposing armies prepared for battle. According to Arab costom, the battle began with a round of hand to hand fighting before general attack.
Hazrat Ali (R.A.) and Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) an uncle of Rasulullah killed many of the kuffar. Twelve flag bearers of the kuffar were killed, eight of whom were killed by Hazrat Ali (R.A.). The kuffar were in desperate situation seeing their brave soldiers slain, they fled from the battlefield pursued by the Muslims. When the archers saw the fallen flags of the enemy and their companions collecting the booty (spoils of war) they sensed victory, and in their enthusiasm and desire to participate in the pursuance of the enemy, the archers overlooked the command of Nabi and left their positions.
Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) was martyred in this battle by Wahshi a negro slave. Jubair bin Mut'am the slave owner had offered Wahshi his freedom while Hinda binte Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyaan, the commander of the Makkan army, offered her jewellery on her person if he, Wahshi succeeded in killing Hazrat Hamza (R.A.)
Khalid bin Walid, a Makkan army general, did not fail to observe the weak position of the pass and saw his chance. Through the pass, at the head of his cavalry (soldiers on horseback) he fiercely attacked and the Muslims suffered heavy losses. Hazrat Mus'ab bin Umair (R.A.), a sahabi who resembled our beloved Nabi was martyred in this attack. The Kuffar soldiers raised a cry that the prophet was slain. This alarming news spread like wild fire and caused great grief amongst the Muslims. This false cry of the kuffar rallied the devoted Sahaba round Rasulullah . Hazrat Aus bin Nazar (R.A.) said: 'Oh what worth is life then if the Prophet is no longer in our midst. Let us fight on for the cause which he fought for'. These words inspired the Muslims to fight for the cause of Islaam.
Hazrat Ka'ab bin Malik (R.A.) saw Rasulullah and loudly proclaimed; 'Muslims be happy, Rasulullah is alive and well'. Thereafter Rasulullah said, 'Come to me, I am the Rasool of Allah'.
Hazrat Ali (R.A.), Hazrat Abu Bakr (R.A.), Hazrat Sa'ad bin Waqaas (R.A.), Hazrat Zubair (R.A.), Hazrat Talha (R.A.) among the Muhajireen and Hazrat Abu Dujana from the Ansaar were standing around our Nabi and formed a secured wall around him. The sword of Hazat Ali (R.A.) named 'Zulfiqar' fell like lightning and many of the attackers were forced to fall back. The enemies best effort to get to our Nabi were now frustrated.
One of the enemy, Ibn Qami'ah moved forward and gave a blow with his sword over the head of Rasulullah which caused two rings of his helmet (head gear) to pierce the face of Rasulullah . Another enemy struck him on the face with a stone with the result that two of his teeth fell were martyred.
The kuffar had to retreat because they were frustrated in their attempts against the Muslims. Before leaving the battlefield their passion and hatred and vengeance took the most barbarous shape, namely they gave vent to their vengeance on the dead bodies of the Muslims. The bodies were mercilessly mutilated. Hinda the wife of Abu Sufyaan hated the beloved uncle of Nabi Hazrat Hamza (R.A.) and seeing his dead body, ripped it open, took out the liver, chewed it, and garlanded herself with the intestines. She climbed up a hill and sang a song indicating that the defeat at Badr was avenged that day, Sixty five Ansaar and four Muhajireen laid down their lives and achieved matchless martyrdom. Rasulullah never lost his fortitude and patience.
Yet again, the Kuffar left the battlefield having failed to exterminate Islaam.

Battle Of Badar

As soon as Abu Sufyaan got his caravan safely away from the Muslims, he sent another message to Makkah that they were safe and no longer required assistance. Abu Jahl was looking for an excuse to attack the Muslims. He had been making preparations for almost a year, thus he was not prepared to turn back after receiving the message from Abu Sufyaan. He marched towards Madinah with an army of 1000 men, 700 camels and 300 horses. Abu Jahl's men were well trained and well armed with spears, swords, bows and arrows, and shields.

On hearing the news that the Kuffaar of Makkah had left with 1000 men to destroy the Muslims, Rasulullah made mushwarah (consultation) with the sahaba at Masji-e-Nabwi in Madinah. At the Mashwarah, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A.), Hazrat Umar (R.A.) from Muhajireen and Hazrat Saad bin Mu'az from the Ansaar and the rest of the Muslims showed their willingness and desire to defend Islaam against falsehood.

When Rasulullah was satisfied with the decision, he began preparations for the defence of Islaam. Rasulullah left Madinah with 313 men including some teenage boys. They only had 3 horses, 70 camels and a few swords. When they reached BADR, which was a mountainous region, Rasulullah made dua to Allah and pleaded : 'O Allah! should this small group of believers perish this day, no one will be left on earth to worship you and carry your message to the world'.

The battle took place on the 17th of Ramadhaan 2 A.H. Allah sent His mercy and the Kuffar lost the battle at the hands of the Muslims. Seventy of the Kufaar including the arch enemy of Islaam, Abu Jahl were killed and as many as seventy were taken as prisoners-of-war. Fourteen Muslims were martyred in the battle.

It was a battle between good and evil, falsehood was defeated and Truth triumphed. The success of the Battle of Badr considerably strengthened the Muslims and their cause.